Mandibular Advancement Achieved through a Stepped Mouthpiece Design Can Change the Size of the Upper Airways

Presented at Respiratory Drug Delivery 2010, Orlando, Florida April, 2010 Authors: Kurt Nikander, Ian Petherbridge, Eugene Scargerry, dirk Von Hollen, John Viviano, Henry Chrystyn Summary: “Maximal lung deposition of inhaled aerosols is important in the treatment of respiratory diseases. The upper airways are known to affect the deposition of aerosol in the lungs. The design…

Alterations in upper airway cross-sectional area in response to lower body positive pressure in healthy subjects

Thorax, 2007 Authors: S. Shiota, C. M. Ryan, K.L. Chiu, P. Ruttanaumpawan, J. Haight, M. Arzt, J. S. Floras, C. Chan and T. D. Bradley Conclusion: “In healthy subject, displacement of fluid from the legs by LBPP causes distension of the neck and narrowing of the UA lumen. Fluid displacement from the lower to the…

Oropharyngeal Dimensions in Adults: Effect of Ethnicity, Gender, and Sleep Apnea

Journal of Clinical Sleep Medicine, 2005 Authors: K. Monahan, H. L. Kirchner, S. Redline Conclusion: “We concluded that (1) acoustic pharyngometry identifies differences in upper airway characteristics based on gender, ethnicity, and SDB status and (2) novel parameters can assist in quantifying these pharyngeal phenotypes. The novel parameters can potentially facilitate quantitative, as an adjunct…

Assessing Orthotic Normalization of Pharyngeal Dynamics

Journal of Craniomandibular Practice, 2004 Author: J. S. Viviano, B.Sc., D.D.S. Conclusion: “Both non-invasive and accurate, acoustic reflectometry (AR) provides and objective measurement of the oral cavity and pharyngeal airway caudal to the velopharynx down to the glottis. Other advantages include ease of use and repeatability, inexpensive to perform, and high patient acceptance.” “Although video…

Objective, Noninvasive Evaluation of Velopharyngeal Function in Cleft and Noncleft patients

Cleft Palate-Craniofacial journal, January 1998 Authors: M. Kunkel, U. Wahlmann, W. Wagner Conclusion: “Cleft palate and control patients showed overlapping ranges of velopharyngeal mobility, indicating that muscle function cannot be classified as normal or pathologic by a single acoustic measurement. An objective method of assessing velopharyngeal mobility may, however, provide a diagnostic tool for monitoring…

Comparison of Glottic Areas Measured by Acoustic Reflections vs. Computerized Tomography

Journal of Applied Physiology, 1998 Authors: A. D. D’Urzo, I. Rubinstein, V. G. Lawson, K. P. Vassal, A. S. Rebuck, A. S Slutsky, and V. Hoffstein Conclusion: “The acoustic reflection method is essentially a physiological tool, dedicated to performing only a single measurement, namely that of airway area. The major advantage of the acoustic reflections…

Objective evaluation of velopharyngeal function by acoustic reflection measurements

Mund Kiefer GesichtsChirurgie, 1998 Authors: M. Kunkel, U. Wahlmann, W. Wagner Introduction: “Today, acoustic rhinometry can be viewed as an accepted diagnostic tool, frequently used in the planning and follow-up of functional nasal surgery, as well as in the quantitative evaluation of allergic mucosal reactions. “Even for further peripheral airways, Jackson et al. reported that,…

Pulmonary Airway Area by the Two-microphone Acoustic Reflection Method

Journal of Applied Physiology, 1994 Authors: B. Louis, G. M. Glass, and J. J. Fredberg Conclusion: “In summary, we have shown that the two-microphone method permits accurate measurement of human pulmonary airway area of breathing subjects. We established a high-pass filter signal- processing method that lessened artifacts associated with nonrigidity. This is important because it…

Airway Area by Acoustic Reflection: The Two-Microphone Method

Journal of Biomechanical Engineering, 1993 Authors: B. Louis, G. Glass, B. Kresen, J. Fredberg Conclusion: “In summary, the principal findings of this report are as follows. 1) Areas inferred using the two-microphone method compared favorably with the standard single microphone approach and with water displacement methods. 2) We established a correction procedure that secured both…

Acoustic Reflectometry for Airway Measurement. Principles, Limitations and Previous Work

Clinical Physics and Physiological Measurement, 1991

Authors: I. Marshall, M. Rogers, and G. Drummond

Conclusion: “Acoustic pulse reflectometry is a relatively recent technique which allows the non-invasive measurement of human airways. The technique consists of guiding an acoustic impulse through the subject’s mouth and into the airway. Suitable analysis of the
resulting reflection (the

The Acoustic Reflection Technique for Non-invasive Assessment of Upper Airway Area

European Respiratory Journal, 1991 Authors: V. Hoffstein, J. J. Fredberg Conclusion: “It is clear from the already accumulated evidence that the acoustic technique may become a valuable tool for studying the clinical and physiological properties of the upper airway. So far this technique is the only one which allows non-invasive, accurate, reproducible and inexpensive measurements…

Effect of Mouthpiece, Nose Clips, and Head Position on Airway Area Measured by Acoustic Reflections

Journal of Applied Physiology, 1987

Authors: I. Rubinstein, P.A. McClean, R. Boucher, N. Zamel, J.J. Fredberg, and V. Hoffstein

Conclusion: “Acoustic reflection technique is so far the only relatively simple, noninvasive, reproducible, and inexpensive technique that permits the measurements of upper airway anatomy under dynamic conditions.”

Effect of Position and Lung Volume on Upper Airway Geometry

Journal of Applied Physiology, 1987 Authors: J. M. Fouke and K. P. Strohl Conclusion: “The occurrence of upper airway obstruction during sleep and with anesthesia suggests the possibility that upper airway size might be compromised by the gravitational effects of the supine position. We used an acoustic reflection technique to image airway geometry and made…